My case study was called Abracadabra: Magic Johnson and the anti-HIV treatments. It explained how the virus works and a few treatement that were out there. This is a basic overview of the case study. There are two types of people with HIV; the non-progressors who have the virus, but do not show the AIDS symptoms, and the progressors who have high load of the virus and quickly advance to AIDS. To understand how to stop the HIV virus, we must first understand how it works. The virus attaches to T-cell by binding their receptors (glycoprotein 160) with the CD4 receptor. Once in the cell, the virus loses its protective covering and releases two RNA strands. The strands then go through Reverse Transcriptase and the RNA is converted to dsDNA. An enzyme called integrase inserts the HIV genome DNA into the host cell’s DNA. Once it is in the cell’s genome the HIV is called a provirus. The HIV genome is translated by the host cell’s machinery into polypeptides that will be cleaved. Then the enzyme protease cleaves the polypeptides into mature HIV proteins. The mature proteins then form the new HIV virons that will then bud out of the cell and go infect other cells. Thousands of virons may be produced within a single cell. One of the most popular ways to keep the virus under control is the Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) also known as “drug cocktails”. These are groups of medicine given at the same time to patients. Although the medicine sometimes works there are a few problems. Fist the medicine cost a lot, around $ 1000 per month. Also the HIV virus mutates too quickly. For example one change in the amino acid of the virus and the medicine being used could become ineffective. Because of natural selection, the HIV virus has the ability to mutate at a much faster rate than the amount of medicine being produced.
Danna Downs: I really like the topic that you picked Saritha because it is fascinating and also a very scary one! The two types of people with HIV is very interesting because that means that in the case such as the non-progressor, who has the virus but does not show symptoms, that means that they can be passing on the infection without even knowing it! That has the potential to be very dangerous. ALso, what makes this virus so effective is something very interesting. The virus has the ability to mutate so quickly that any type of medicine cannot cure it. What if while you have AIDS or HIV and you get sick with another virus, they are able to adapt and do the same thing? To continually mutate while maintaining the same purpose and be able to keep on doing it's job, whatever the case may be, is actually a favorable trait for a virus to have. Not that humans would benefit from it, which makes it very dangerous!
Danna DownsMy case study was called, Why Is Sex Good, which compared the values of asexual and sexual reproduction. Through studies of many different organisms that have evolved and basically stayed constant long before we ever came to be, scientists have shown that sex wasn't necessary for reproduction. Many bacteria and one-celled organisms could reproduce through binary fission to produce identical copies of themselves. Complex organisms have been found to be able to accomplish this asexual process as well. Queen bees can produce males through a process of parthenogenesis, in which female eggs spontaneously begin development without sperm being involved at all. Parthenogenesis is also performed by a specific species of lizards where absolutely no males exist! There are even other animals such as fish that can reproduce both sexually and asexually and can even switch genders seasonally depending on which is in short supply. Based on all of this information, the question that arises is why did sexual reproduction even evolve if species were doing just fine on their own through asexual reproduction and in some cases, do better without it? There is evidence that backs up the statement that species can do better without sexual reproduction because there are many benefits to only reproducing through asexual reproduction. When participating in sexual reproduction, mixing of genes will occur which can potentially break up favorable combinations. Also, asexual reproduction is twice as efficient as sexual reproduction. Based on this information, sexual reproduction has it's disadvantages, but those disadvantages can be turned around into advantages if you look at it from a different point of view. Sexual reproduction may mix genes but instead of breaking up favorable combinations, it has the potential to create new ones. Without sex, there would be no reason for males to exist in a population because it is more beneficial for a population to have every member capable of reproduction. If there were no males, then females would be responsible for filling their positions. If there wasn't sexual reproduction, there would be no specialization, there would be no color, variation, or even different behaviors would not exist. Therefore the value of each type of reproduction can only be measured by the specific situations of each individual species and the organisms with in it.
Lauren Brown: Asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction both have their disadvantages and advantages. Sexual reproduction allows for different and new combinations of genes that can lead to evolution. Asexual reproduction means a male doesn't have to present in a population, but it doesn't allow for variation. Still some populations of animals, like some fish which you mentioned,can reproduce sexually or asexually. Is the back up asexual reproduction for if there are no males around? Is the back up sexual reproduction? Why would there need to be males in the population anyway if they can switch over to asexual reproduction. The only benefit would be new combinations of genes, but that doesn't seem to be necessary in the lizard population.
Although sexual reproduction allows for greater genetic diversity, asexual reproduction serves as a better means to win the game of life. Asexual reproduction can produce massive amounts of offspring, with the same genetic data as the parent. This is favorable in some situations, because of the parent's ability to survive and reproduce, the offspring also have the chance to do so as well. Asexual reproduction can also occur when there are no other organisms around. The problem with asexual reproduction is genetic diversity. With Asexual reproduction, the only genetic diversity one could hope for would be mutations or pathogenic DNA being added to the genome. This is why a combination of asexual and sexual reproduction would be the most beneficial to the survival of an organism (at least in my eyes). Bacteria have the ability to share genetic data, thus creating differing organisms, yet retaining the ability to create mass amounts of offspring easily.
Lauren Brown. My case study was Mystery in Alaska: Why Have All the Sea Lions Gone? It examined populations of Stellar sea lions. Populations of the western sea lions in Prince William Sound through the Aleutian Islands have seen a decrease in the population by 85-90%. However the populations on the southeastern coast have actually increased steadily. Young western sea lions have barely been able to reach the age of three. Sexual maturity in these populations occurs between the ages of three and eight for males and 4 ½ for females.. If they can only live to the age of three than there will be no new litters of pups and the population will continue to decline, and if that wasn’t enough humans have also intruded on their territory. The stellar sea lions usually eat Pollock and Herring. In 1970 the government issued a ban on herring fishing along the southeastern coast. This lead to an increase in population for the the southeastern population of the sea lions, but had a negative effect on the western. The populations of fish on the west coast flipped with Pollock becoming more abundant that herring. It’s harder for Pollock to be caught by the sea lions and it is also harder for them to digest. In the end the western coast sea lions population is still decreasing due to environmental factors.
I like your topic: endangering of animals. Usually in a region, after a population starts to decline it can't be stopped without help from outside people. The government's attempt at helping by stopping herring fishing had a surprising result though, it switched the western and southeastern trends. If this continues then at least one of the two coasts must suffer. If the government tries to ban both coasts, it'll probably lead to illegal fishing. To avoid this the government must come with a different approach.
were types 2 and 5, 2 and 5, and 1 and 6, respectively. Karen's husband had types 5 and 6. Doctors were perplexed that this occurred and doctor eventually tested the same HLA genes in cells other than the blood, including thyroid and hair cells. This led to the discovery that Karen was a chimera. In other words, this means she resulted as a fusion of two sperm cells and two egg cells. This was because her mother released two egg cells and her father provided two sperm cells. This would normally result in fraternal twins but in Karen's case they all just fused together, and one zygote gave rise to certain cells while the other zygote gave rise to different cells. This was what caused her to have her many genetic makeups.
Justin Vinomon- The case study I decided to investigate was titled "Giving Birth to Someone Else’s Children? A Case of Disputed Maternity". It was definitely a very interesting situation. A woman named Karen was fifty-two years old and needed a kidney transplant and so the blood types of her children were tested. The nurse revealed to her saying that, "Your sons’ blood does not match your blood and that’s an impossibility, so they couldn’t be your children...these could not be your children.” When an organ is transplanted from one person to another it is vital that many of the genes of donor "match up" with the genes of the receiver. On chromosome #6, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, which encode cell surface recognition proteins to differentiate own cells from foreign cells, of Karen and her three sons were different. This was unusual because these genes are usually inherited together on blocks known as haplotypes. Karen had haplotype 1 and 3, while and her three sons were types 2 and 5, 2 and 5, and 1 and 6, respectively. Karen's husband had types 5 and 6. Doctors were perplexed that this occurred and doctor eventually tested the same HLA genes in cells other than the blood, including thyroid and hair cells. This led to the discovery that Karen was a chimera. In other words, this means she resulted as a fusion of two sperm cells and two egg cells. This was because her mother released two egg cells and her father provided two sperm cells. This would normally result in fraternal twins but in Karen's case they all just fused together, and one zygote gave rise to certain cells while the other zygote gave rise to different cells. This was what caused her to have her many genetic makeups.
Wow, That's kinda creepy. Almost like being two people at once. The only thing I find strange with that is if she had 2 sperm and 2 eggs, wouldn't she have twice as many genes in her cells? and wouldn't that cause a lot of genetic issues? I don't know. But if this happened in real life, I would have just assumed she cheated or something, rather than something bizarre like that.
Zachary Petty Reply--WOW! This is extremely interesting. To think that a single organism could have matured from two independently fertilized zygotes is surprising. I stand with Omar with confusion as to how such an event could have occurred without some genetic "confusion." If you consider it carefully, Karen would have the same probability of genetic diversity from her immediate biological parents, that would normally be seen between an offspring and their GRANDPARENTS! A generational skip in genetic diversity with no seemingly obvious phenotypic consequences seems just amazing.
Bowen YangBowen YangMy case study is called "Bad Fish, Bad Bird" , which is adapted from a case by James A Hewlett. The case study is about a person, Dr. Westwood, who is in Indonesia to study a sighting of a colelacanth, when "pufferfish posioned". The posioning caused Westwood to go numb, but luckily he was able to call for help and rushed to the hospital. Pufferfish posioning is caused by a chemical called tetrodotoxin, which is present in the cells of the pufferfish. When present in the body the tetrodotoxin blocks voltage-gated sodium ion channels, which then causes hyperpolarization of the cell insides, and a defect in the action potential. Later Westwood went to Papua New Guinea, to observe a bird, which he later found to also have a posion in its feathers. The article was interesting, especially with the pufferfish. I recall that the pufferfish is a expensive seafood, taking a very skillful chef to be able to cook it without the toxins.
That seems like an interesting case study, Bowen. I had not known how dangerous puffer fish could be, especially considering how friendly one looked on Finding Nemo. Definitely, Dr. Westwood is very lucky to have survived that especially considering that he must have been underwater. I also found it neat that this particular topic related to what we have been reading recently about hyperpolarization, action potential, etc. in Chapter 48. Also, that is very interesting that some birds have poison in its feathers.
That seems really cool. I wonder how he got the poison. Did he eat the fish or was he in the water and got stung. It's kind of creepy that you can eat the fish though. I wonder why if the poison is that dangerous they don't outlaw the cooking of the fish. Is it allowed in the US. I also wonder how the same poison can be found in the birds? How did they get it? Good case, leaves alot of things to question and research.
CeCehmmm I feel like research can be done to see the response time or how B cells can react to the attack of poisoning. The fast symptom showing that the immune system didn't have enough time to receive the antigen receptor and construct helper T cells fast enough. Also, imagine how long it had to take for the chef to know when the fish is fully cooked because a person could die eating the fish. It's ironic how something so easy to catch is something so hard to feed. #swag #irony #asainpower #konichewa :)
Pufferfish are deadly and if the fish is prepared incorrectly it can lead to death (in fact there are numerous deaths reported in Japan each year from the consumption of this delicacy).Lilly Li
In more depth of eating pufferfish/fugu fish (because it really amuses me to know facts like this), the most poisonous parts are the liver, gonads, intestines, and skin, in which there are over 120 species. As for the chefs, they have to undergo a special course, learning how to prepare the fugu fish, and just to make sure they did a good job, they must eat what they prepared. However, despite the training, there are still approximately around 100-200 deaths by tetradoxin poisoning. The most favored part of the fugu fish is the roe/eggs, in which you can only eat a tiny amount of, without completely risking your life. In case you were wondering if they have medics on the scene with antidotes for tetradoxin, you were wrong. You got poisoned? TOUGH LOVE. Walk it off. (If you do manage to survive,which I highly doubt, you still have to pay the expensive price for eating it, well over $200 for one dish). Fan-flipping-tastic.
This Case Study actually seams pretty interesting, and it seems like it is very similar to the cone snail that was at the introduction of the chapter. But also, before this, i never knew that bird feathers were poisonous, thats interesting. And i also read a few of these other comments, some about dying by eating the poisonous fish? To me that just seems a bit creepy because i never really know what im eating when i go to these random asian restaurant...was Coach's intention to scare us like this?!
My case study was "Too Many Deer" in which there are, well, too many deer. The deer in Wesselman woods nature preserve. The deer have a K level of 4 to 5, which is way higher than the norm. Many would ask, why is having deer a bad thing, haven't you ever seen Bambi? Well, according to the study, too many deer would cause a large decline in any plant species around the 4 feet range, ( the reach of a deer ) due to over grazing. Unfortunately, this caused a massive decline in the flowers in the park. Problems arose when people disliked the thought of just hunting the deer, believing it to be unethical. The case study ended without really explaining which choice was used, but in my opinion, hunting is more ethical than relocation or the use of animal contraceptives( believe it or not, that "solution" was actually brought up). Relocation is self explanatory by name, but many of the deer get stressed out and DIE within the first week of relocation, so that's obviously out of the question, and contraceptives? that's insane. Hunting is the best because it's natural. No not because I want to assert my manliness, but because the reason the deer became overpopulated in the first place is because of the lack of a predator in the area. So, either humans arise to the occasion of becoming the predator of the deer, or they reproduce so much that there isn't enough food and they all starve to death. You tell me, Which is more ethical? It's pretty obvious.
Omar!!! I love deer, so I chose your case study!! First of hunting deer is not unethical it is the circle of life! The deer eat the plants, we hunt the deer and sometimes eat it and/or mount it and then we die and we end up in the ground that the deer eat. Hello, watch the Lion King. ANYWAYS!! Nobody should have the right to relocate a deer and use contraceptives. I agree with you Omar. Nature should just take its course! If I hear about anyone relocating deer, Megatron will hunt them down and kill them!!
Kaushik De-My Case Study was "Too Many Deer! A Case Study in Managing Urban Deer Herds". The study regards Evansville, a town in Indiana. The town has a nature preserve located in its centre, and the population of White-Tailed Deer. There are estimated to be 45 deer on the 9.5832e+6 square feet property, which greatly surpasses its carrying capacity. The director of the preserve has established a Natural Resources Committee to manage the deer, and the committee is holding a town-hall meeting, to let the citizens of Evansville speak about the subject. Numerous people are given the chance to speak, some arguing for the killing of the deer, others for relocation or sterilization, and others for the preservation of the current deer population. Citizens argue that the high deer population is causing them to eat most the flora below 4 ft, and causing the population of rare flowers and plants to drop. Others say that the killing of deer is inhumane and than the best course of action is to relocate them to rural areas, or to "build a giant fence around the area". Others say that to interfere with the "natural order" is completely wrong, and they should just "let Mother Nature sort it out". This differed from other case studies because it focused more on the ethical issues of the deer herd, and not as much on the scientific. There was still a hint of science, though, as the townspeople talked about the adverse effects of a high population, such as disease, genetic defects, lack of food, and invasion of other ecosystems.
My case is called Giving Birth to Someone Else’s Children? A Case of Disputed Maternity. It's about this woman names Karen and she unfortunately found out that two out of her three sons might not be hers. Umm, as a mother, how are you supposed to take that? You can't say Oh okay thank you for telling me. She obviously took medical action and went to get blood tests done and all of that. The test results came back saying that r human leukocyte antigen (hla) genes were from a foreign material, so it came from somewhere else. Although, there are 200+ of those genes so every combination should be unique in its own way. However, they are most commonly inherited together in a block known as a haplotype, so there is the problem. The data that was collected suggested that her two sons were related to her one brother which means that they are related to her too. Right? Wrong again! Her mother released two eggs that were separately fertilized by two sperm. That is usually the case with fraternal twins, however in Karen's case these two zygotes fused into one organism...not good. So one zygote gave her some cells and the other formed different cell types giving Karen different genetic make-ups. Isn't that crazy and insane to even believe that technically you are not related to more than half of your offspring. What does that even mean? Maybe I'm not related to my parents at all! Maybe YOU are not genetically related to your parents! Makes you want to go and get HLA gene tested doesn't it?? Interesting case, huh??
I think that this case study was pretty interesting! I mean who knew that just because your mother produces two eggs that were separately fertilized, you have completely different genetic make-up. I think the HLA gene test could really help to see what type of cell types you have and if your really related to your kids. Although, it sucks finding out that your kids are not related to you.
Zachary PettyCase Study--"Colon Cancer: A Case of Genetic Bad Luck?"Cancer is a medical condition that is ever too present today, and the key to solving this problem lies in knowing the "why" behind it. Why do some people get cancer while others don't? One possible explanation is that there may be a link between certain genetic conditions and someone having a cancerous condition. This case study gives a narrative example explaining about how a mutation, specifically that of one in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, can lead to early development of cancer. This Occurs because the large protein that is produced by the APC gene is one that has several binding locations that bind to other proteins within a cell, controlling the functions of these other proteins. One of these binding spots is acceptable to B-catenin protein. When this is bound to the APC protein, it is triggered to break down. Because this protein is indirectly involved in triggering cell replication, binding to APC restricts unnecessary cell replication. APC genetic mutation lead to malfunctioning APC, which leads to uncontrolled B-catenin proteins which leads to unnecessary cell replication AKA cancerous growths. So its possible that certain DNA sequence are more prone to causing cancerous conditions. Harnessing the knowledge of such conditions and how they can be controlled can be essential in cancer prevention and treatment. This topic could prove to be vital in the advancement of the oncological field in the near future.
Lilly LiIf we understand more about the structure of B-catenin protein, we might be able to produce a drug that has a similar structure of B-catenin protein. This drug is close enough to bind to the site of APC protein, but because it is not identical to B-catenin protein, it does not trigger the cell to breakdown. Therefore this drug will act as a competitive inhibitor to inhibit unnecessary cell replication. The ultimate result, hopefully, is the control of cancer.
Lilly Li“My Dog is Broken”Tessa took her dog to father champion puppies, but he wouldn’t “perform”. Tessa thinks he has ED, Erection Dysfunction. She phoned her friend, Melody, to get help. Dr. M. explains erection is cause by signaling pathway. Failure of carry out any step in signaling pathway results in Erection Dysfunction. By treating the dog with different drugs, we can find out which step in the signaling pathway is interrupted. However, this was never answered in “My Dog is Broken”.The signaling pathway for erection causes the smooth muscle bodies of the erection body to relax. When the erection body relaxes, the blood flow suddenly increases, making the erection body full and rigid. The process of relaxation starts with Nitric Oxide, which is the product from Endothelial or Neuronal cell, binding with Guanylyl Cyclase to activate Guanylyl Cyclase. GTP attaches to cGMP and becomes cGMP. The generated cGMP now supplies energy to the inactive PKG and activate PKG. PKG produces Phospho-Proteins which lower the concentration of Ca^2+ and leads to relaxation.There are many researches on enhancing “performance”. Two of them are Viagra and Ginseng. These treatments also work on human because signaling pathways are the same in dogs as it is in mice and humans. Viagra works on phosphodiesterase (PDE). “PDE acts on cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), breaking it down and deactivating it.” By helping cGMP to break down speeds up the activation of PKG and therefore speeds up the lowering of Ca^2+. Ginseng acts on nitric oxide and lead to erection. Ginseng might help the breakdown of L-Arginine to Nitric Oxide and citrulline, or hold Nitroglycerin in a favorable position to produce Nitric Oxide. Both can increase the concentration of N:O and enhances erection.
CeCe Onyegbule- aka Kunta aka World's most interesting African"Sweet Baby" My case study was about a boy who was born successfully. After a few days, he suffered rigid limbs and a seizure. the parents had the doctor run tests, and he specifically ran tests on the baby's urine because the mom said the urine smelled really funny. Matthew’s urine did have a sweet, maple syrup smell. lab results revealed elevated levels of the branched chain amino acids—valine, isoleucine, and leucine.Skin biopsies from the baby and his parents were taken and cultured. Th e ability of the cultured skin fibroblasts to metabolize bcaa was determined. While his parents’ enzyme activity levels were nearly normal, Matthew’s was twicetimes lower than normal. It was determined that Matthew had Maple Syrup Urine Disease. a pedigree chart was performed showing that both parents carried MSUD and the chance of the baby fully exposing was 25%. Matthew continued to suffer approximately three metabolic crises a year. Th ese crises occurred when amino acids accumulated in his blood leading to the swelling of his brain.Even something as simple as a cold or the flu affected his amino acid levels and sent his metabolism into crisis. Some children with msud have had a liver transplant and they are effectively cured. children who received a liver transplant would have to take strong immunosuppressive drugs for the rest of their lives. It was also clear there was a 40% possibility that Matthew could reject the liver and need a second transplant (which also might be rejected) or he could die from surgical complications.
Maxim T.Its interesting that two carrier parents would have a child with the active disease. The amount of excess amino acids to damage the brain must be an insane amount. The kid must live in a bubble because any sort of disease can severely affect his amino acid levels and change his metabolism. I hope that Matthew gets a liver transplant in time or he will lead to troublesome life.
Claudia ContrerasCase Study-"In Sickness and in Health:A Trip to the Genetic Counselor"This case study is about a couple, Greg and Olga, that met in a clinic while waiting for their relatives to get treated for their disease. Greg's brother and Olga's uncle have the same disease, Factor VIII Deficiency. After having to deal with the same situation with their relatives, they fell in love and got married. Everything was going perfect until they decided that they wanted to have kids. They started to worry about being carriers of any type of disease that they could pass on to their children. So, they go to a genetic counselor and they give Dr. Ciletti their family history of diseases. In Greg's history he has a brother with Factor VIII Deficiency, and an uncle, aunt, and maternal grandmother with Myotonic Dystrophy. Olga has a brother and an uncle with Factor VIII Deficiency and a Niece with a son who has Hemophilia A. The counselor makes them a graphic representation, or a pedigree, with the family history so they can see the family relationships with specific diseases. With the pedigree they realize that Greg is not infected with the disease Myotonic Dystrophy or a carrier of the disease. So, their children have no chance of being inherited. Then, for Factor VIII Deficiency, the counselor said that it is a sex-linked trait and will mostly be in boys, but since Greg does not have this disease, it probably won't be passed on. The couple also asks about Cystic Fibrosis. The counselor says that the chance of them having a baby with this disease is 1 out of 16,560 by calculating their heritage population. She used the p+q=1 to determine it. They also asked about diseases that they could get when they get older like Cancer, Alzhiemer's, and Diabetes but the counselor said that they would have to take Genetic testing for specific diseases at their expense. By the end of the session, the couple was calmer and relieved about the situation. Now they can have as many kids as they want!
The case I read was "A Devil of a Disease," which talked about Tasmanian Devils in Tasmania whose population had been decreasing between 1996 and 2007. Studies showed that the Devils were growing lethal facial lesions (abnormal growths) more frequently and under further inspection, were actually discovered to be facial tumors. This has been speculated as the possible reason for the population dives, in which some eastern areas experienced 85% Tasmanian Devil population drops. In response to this, scientists tested many possible reasons for the sudden appearance of the tumor, going through things like chemical products to oncogenes, all of which were inconclusive. However as the cytogenesists analyzed the karyotypes of the from the tumors, they discovered major mismatches in the homologous chromosomes. As a result, scientists were able to identify that the chromosome had originated in a single Tasmanian Devil and that its disease was passed down through generations of breeding causing an epidemic. In retaliation of the disease and as intervention of nature's order of killing off animals, the humans have decided to capture and move some Devils out of their habitat and began searching for a cure to the disease. Fan-flipping-tastic
Hi!!! U copied Abhi by the way
This case study is interesting because it talks about how a single trait can be passed down through various generations. This would support genetic diversity since if that would have happened in this population of tasmanian devils then this lethal cancer would not have been passed down as easily. It would seem however that since this cancer was passed down there must have been some positive aspect to it as otherwise there would be little or not chance that it would be passed down so often. - Peter Yupari
Maxim T.Case study: Search for the Missing Sea OttersThe case study deals with Dr. James Estes' discovery of the sudden decline of the sea otter population in Alaska since 1990. Dr. Estes studied sea otters by tracking their movement with tags and observed the population had recovered from large scale poaching during the 1970's. From 1990 to 2000, the sea otter population had dipped 90%. Dr. Estes proposed that killer whales were the culprit to the rapid decline in sea otters. During the same time period, the amount of killer whale attacks on sea otters had increased significantly. The reason for this sudden change in killer whale diet is still unknown. This drop in sea otter population causes change in the Alaskan shore ecosystem by increasing the population of sea urchin due and change in diet of predators of sea otters.
Nina SisoThis seemed like a very interesting article. I think it shows how human inflluence can greatly damage ecosystems and wildlife. I wonder if the increased amount of killer whale attacks on sea otters is due to lack of another source of food. I am also curious how the increasing population of sea urchins affects the overall ecosystem of the Alaskan shoreline.
Nina SisoCase Study: Prayer Study Seince or Not?In this case study, William Harris performed a study with 990 patients the the Mid America Heart Institute Program. He wanted to see if patients who were unknowingly prayed for fared better than those who did not. The patients, who were not even aware that they were part of a study, were split into groups of those being prayed for and those not being prayed for. The study lasted four weeks and the result was that patients who were prayed for generally suffered 10% fewer complications. Complications range from chest pains to cardiac arrest. Certain factors could not be controlled. Half of the patients said that they had a religion, and most patients probably already had other people pryaing for them that they knew about. Other studies like this have been perforemed where the result was that prayed for patients were actually worse, or that there seemed to be no difference between the two groups. It has still not been proven if a difference is made by praying, however patients who believe in God or prayer are usually better off than those who don't.
This case study does bring up an interesting point. Though, there weren't any statistically significant results, the premis is a good one. I think that the experiment could be improved by trying to limit lurking variables, and creating more experimental groups, such as a group who knew that they were being prayed for. It's interesting that just believing in God can alter a person's chances of recovery.
Abracadabra: Magic Johnson and the anti-HIV treatmentsMy Case Study shoed how HIV worked and some treatments available for some mentioned rich people who have nothing better to do with their money. 2 HIVs exist. 1 is the non-progressors, and the other are the progressors. The Non-Progressors have the virus and show no symptoms. The Progressors have the virus. They probably wish they didn’t do what they did if they knew what they were really carrying. HIV attaches to t cell by binding to cd4. When the virus is inside, it releases 2 RNAs. The HIV is then inserted into the host cell’s DNA, which is then called a pro virus. Finally, enzymes cleave the polypeptides into the actual HIV. The actual HIV cells with come out of said cell and infect a lot of other cells, because they’re mean and have nothing better to do with their time. To control this disease, for, maybe a 20 years (random number of course), there is a treatment called HAART (highly active antiretrovirus therapy), or more simpler, drug cocktails. This treatment costs about $1000 EACH month. This costs this amount because HIV mutates extremely quickly, but if you are a certain pro basketball player, you can probably afford it. Thinking about safe sex yet?
"A Typical Cold?"This case study focused on assessing and recongnizing illnesses and symptoms. In a hypothetical situation, a child is adopted and taken in for a routine physical, but he seems to also have a cold. His nose is runny, but ears are clear of fluid; he also wheezes when he breaths. More information is given, but nothing seems out of the ordinary. A blood sample and a chest x-ray are ordered, and he's scheduled for a follow up appointment. The day of the follow up appointment comes, the pediatrician notices a layer of white on his face,it's dried salt build-up. She goes over the x-ray results and presents her hypothesis to the parents, and then orders a salt-chloride test. The results are given, but not the diagnosis, but it's clear that this isn't a commone cold.
Peter YupariCase Study: A Can of BullIn my case study a case was set to find whether or not the claims stated by energy drink companies are true or not. I found this to be very interesting for me since I use energy drinks every once in a while. The case study shows that most if not all energy drinks are very similar to regular carbonated beverages, but much more caffeinated. When used in moderation energy drinks are not normally dangerous but when drunk in large quantities it can become dangerous. However in general most energy drinks are very similar to a regular can of coke, although a can of coke has much more sugar and calories, the only major difference between energy drinks and sodas would be the much larger amount of caffeine in energy drinks. There are some ingredients which can be potentially harmful in large amounts such as pantothenic acid and glucuronolactone. There are also many ingredients which have been stated to enhance performance but have not been proven by any scientific studies. Some of these ingredients are highly advertised but apparently have little or no scientific data backing them up, such as 1-taurine and niacin. So the gist of this case study is that most of these energy drinks can improve performance with use of caffeine, but many other advertised ingredients have not yet been proven scientifically. Also these drinks are not dangerous when drunk in moderation, but drinking these in excess can be dangerous.